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Heat Flux Deutsch

Deutsch: Wärmeflusssensor. English: Heat flux sensor. Español: Sensor de flujo de calor. Français: Capteur de flux thermique. हिन्दी: गर्मी. Überprüfen Sie die Übersetzungen von 'heat flux' ins Deutsch. Schauen Sie sich Beispiele für heat flux-Übersetzungen in Sätzen an, hören Sie sich die. Translation for 'heat flux' in the free English-German dictionary and many other German translations.

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A heat flux sensor is a transducer that generates an electrical signal proportional to the total heat rate applied to the surface of the sensor.

The measured heat rate is divided by the surface area of the sensor to determine the heat flux. The heat flux can have different origins; in principle convective, radiative as well as conductive heat can be measured.

Heat flux sensors are known under different names, such as heat flux transducers, heat flux gauges, heat flux plates.

Some instruments are actually single-purpose heat flux sensors, like pyranometers for solar radiation measurement.

Other heat flux sensors include Gardon gauges [1] also known as a circular-foil gauge , thin-film thermopiles , [2] and Schmidt-Boelter gauges.

Heat flux sensors are used for a variety of applications. Common applications are studies of building envelope thermal resistance, studies of the effect of fire and flames or laser power measurements.

More exotic applications include estimation of fouling on boiler surfaces, temperature measurement of moving foil material, etc.

The total heat flux is composed of a conductive , convective and radiative part. Depending on the application, one might want to measure all three of these quantities or single one out.

An example of measurement of radiative heat flux density is a pyranometer for measurement of solar radiation. An example of a sensor sensitive to radiative as well as convective heat flux is a Gardon or Schmidt—Boelter gauge, used for studies of fire and flames.

The Gardon must measure convection perpendicular to the face of the sensor to be accurate due to the circular-foil construction, while the wire-wound geometry of the Schmidt-Boelter gauge can measure both perpendicular and parallel flows.

In this case the sensor is mounted on a water-cooled body. Such sensors are used in fire resistance testing to put the fire to which samples are exposed to the right intensity level.

There are various examples of sensors that internally use heat flux sensors examples are laser power meters , pyranometers , etc.

We will discuss three large fields of application in what follows. Soil heat flux is a most important parameter in agro-meteorological studies, since it allows one to study the amount of energy stored in the soil as a function of time.

The problems that are encountered in soil are threefold:. The result of all this is the quality of the data in soil heat flux measurement is not under control; the measurement of soil heat flux is considered to be extremely difficult.

In a world ever more concerned with saving energy, studying the thermal properties of buildings has become a growing field of interest.

One of the starting points in these studies is the mounting of heat flux sensors on walls in existing buildings or structures built especially for this type of research.

The measurement of heat flux in walls is comparable to that in soil in many respects. Two major differences however are the fact that the thermal properties of a wall generally do not change provided its moisture content does not change and that it is not always possible to insert the heat flux sensor in the wall, so that it has to be mounted on its inner or outer surface.

When the heat flux sensor has to be mounted on the surface of the wall, one has to take care that the added thermal resistance is not too large.

Also the spectral properties should be matching those of the wall as closely as possible. If the sensor is exposed to solar radiation , this is especially important.

In this case one should consider painting the sensor in the same color as the wall. Also in walls the use of self-calibrating heat flux sensors should be considered.

The measurement of the heat exchange of human beings is of importance for medical studies, and when designing clothing, immersion suits and sleeping bags.

A difficulty during this measurement is that the human skin is not particularly suitable for the mounting of heat flux sensors. Also the sensor has to be thin: the skin essentially is a constant temperature heat sink, so added thermal resistance has to be avoided.

Another problem is that test persons might be moving. The contact between the test person and the sensor can be lost. For this reason, whenever a high level of quality assurance of the measurement is required, it can be recommended to use a self-calibrating sensor.

Heat flux sensors are also used in industrial environments, where temperature and heat flux may be much higher. Examples of these environments are aluminium smelting , solar concentrators , coal fired boilers , blast furnaces , flare systems , fluidized beds , cokers , A heat flux sensor should measure the local heat flux density in one direction.

The result is expressed in watts per square meter. The calculation is done according to:. As shown before in the figure to the left, heat flux sensors generally have the shape of a flat plate and a sensitivity in the direction perpendicular to the sensor surface.

Usually a number of thermocouples connected in series called thermopiles are used. General advantages of thermopiles are their stability, low ohmic value which implies little pickup of electromagnetic disturbances , good signal-noise ratio and the fact that zero input gives zero output.

Disadvantageous is the low sensitivity. Usually, the thermal resistance and the thermal capacity of the entire heat flux sensor are equal to those of the filling material.

Stretching the analogy with the electric circuit further, one arrives at the following expression for the response time:. From this formula one can conclude that material properties of the filling material and dimensions are determining the response time.

As a rule of thumb, the response time is proportional to the thickness to the power of two. Other parameters that are determining sensor properties are the electrical characteristics of the thermocouple.

The temperature dependence of the thermocouple causes the temperature dependence and the non-linearity of the heat flux sensor. The non linearity at a certain temperature is in fact the derivative of the temperature dependence at that temperature.

However, a well designed sensor may have a lower temperature dependence and better linearity than expected. There are two ways of achieving this:.

Another factor that determines heat flux sensor behavior, is the construction of the sensor. In particular some designs have a strongly nonuniform sensitivity.

In the case of simultaneous heat and mass transfer the effective heat flux may substantially, by several orders of magnitude, exceed the value due to heat conduction only.

The radiative heat flux is a flux of electromagnetic radiation and, in contrast to convection and heat conduction, may occur without any intervening medium, i.

For an idealized black body the radiation heat flux is described by Planck's law. The actual radiation flux values can be only lower than this idealized value.

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Heat Flux Deutsch - Dateiverwendung

Klicke auf einen Zeitpunkt, um diese Version zu laden. Wörterbücher durchsuchen. Konzentrieren Sie sich darauf, gesund zu werden springer springer. It is observed that for […] a given value ofB the ratio of radiative heat flux to convective heat flux is maximum at the edge of the boundary […] layer and tends to an asymptotic value as the boundary is reached.

The problems that are encountered in soil are threefold:. The result of all this is the quality of the data in soil heat flux measurement is not under control; the measurement of soil heat flux is considered to be extremely difficult.

In a world ever more concerned with saving energy, studying the thermal properties of buildings has become a growing field of interest. One of the starting points in these studies is the mounting of heat flux sensors on walls in existing buildings or structures built especially for this type of research.

The measurement of heat flux in walls is comparable to that in soil in many respects. Two major differences however are the fact that the thermal properties of a wall generally do not change provided its moisture content does not change and that it is not always possible to insert the heat flux sensor in the wall, so that it has to be mounted on its inner or outer surface.

When the heat flux sensor has to be mounted on the surface of the wall, one has to take care that the added thermal resistance is not too large.

Also the spectral properties should be matching those of the wall as closely as possible. If the sensor is exposed to solar radiation , this is especially important.

In this case one should consider painting the sensor in the same color as the wall. Also in walls the use of self-calibrating heat flux sensors should be considered.

The measurement of the heat exchange of human beings is of importance for medical studies, and when designing clothing, immersion suits and sleeping bags.

A difficulty during this measurement is that the human skin is not particularly suitable for the mounting of heat flux sensors.

Also the sensor has to be thin: the skin essentially is a constant temperature heat sink, so added thermal resistance has to be avoided.

Another problem is that test persons might be moving. The contact between the test person and the sensor can be lost.

For this reason, whenever a high level of quality assurance of the measurement is required, it can be recommended to use a self-calibrating sensor.

Heat flux sensors are also used in industrial environments, where temperature and heat flux may be much higher.

Examples of these environments are aluminium smelting , solar concentrators , coal fired boilers , blast furnaces , flare systems , fluidized beds , cokers , A heat flux sensor should measure the local heat flux density in one direction.

The result is expressed in watts per square meter. The calculation is done according to:. As shown before in the figure to the left, heat flux sensors generally have the shape of a flat plate and a sensitivity in the direction perpendicular to the sensor surface.

Usually a number of thermocouples connected in series called thermopiles are used. General advantages of thermopiles are their stability, low ohmic value which implies little pickup of electromagnetic disturbances , good signal-noise ratio and the fact that zero input gives zero output.

Disadvantageous is the low sensitivity. Usually, the thermal resistance and the thermal capacity of the entire heat flux sensor are equal to those of the filling material.

Stretching the analogy with the electric circuit further, one arrives at the following expression for the response time:.

From this formula one can conclude that material properties of the filling material and dimensions are determining the response time.

As a rule of thumb, the response time is proportional to the thickness to the power of two. Other parameters that are determining sensor properties are the electrical characteristics of the thermocouple.

The temperature dependence of the thermocouple causes the temperature dependence and the non-linearity of the heat flux sensor.

The non linearity at a certain temperature is in fact the derivative of the temperature dependence at that temperature.

However, a well designed sensor may have a lower temperature dependence and better linearity than expected. There are two ways of achieving this:.

Another factor that determines heat flux sensor behavior, is the construction of the sensor. In particular some designs have a strongly nonuniform sensitivity.

Others even exhibit a sensitivity to lateral fluxes. The sensor schematically given in the above figure would for example also be sensitive to heat flows from left to right.

This type of behavior will not cause problems as long as fluxes are uniform and in one direction only. To promote uniformity of sensitivity, a so-called sandwich construction as shown in the figure to the left can be used.

The purpose of the plates, which have a high conductivity, is to promote the transport of heat across the whole sensitive surface.

It is difficult to quantify non-uniformity and sensitivity to lateral fluxes. Some sensors are equipped with an extra electrical lead, splitting the sensor into two parts.

If during application, there is non-uniform behavior of the sensor or the flux, this will result in different outputs of the two parts. Summarizing: The intrinsic specifications that can be attributed to heat flux sensors are thermal conductivity, total thermal resistance, heat capacity, response time, non linearity, stability, temperature dependence of sensitivity, uniformity of sensitivity and sensitivity to lateral fluxes.

For the latter two specifications, a good method for quantification is not known. This constant is also called sensitivity.

The sensitivity is primarily determined by the sensor construction and operation temperatures, but also by the geometry and material properties of the object that is measured.

Therefore the sensor should be calibrated under conditions that are close to the conditions of the intended application.

The calibration set-up should also be properly shielded to limit external influences. One should avoid air gaps between layers in the test stack.

These can be filled with filling materials, like toothpaste, caulk or putty. If need be, thermally conductive gel can be used to improve contact between layers.

The calibration is done by applying a controlled heat flux through the sensor. By varying the hot and cold sides of the stack, and measuring the voltages of the heat flux sensor and temperature sensor, the correct sensitivity can be determined with:.

A generalized classification distinguishes between heat fluxes by convection , heat conduction , and radiation. The heat flux vector is directed towards regions of lower temperature.

Convective heat flux is proportional to the temperature difference between solid, liquid, or gaseous media participating in heat transfer. A heat transfer coefficient serves as the proportionality factor.

Under heat conduction, the heat flux vector is proportional to and usually parallel to the temperature gradient vector.

However, in anisotropic bodies the direction of the two vectors may not coincide.

Heat Flux Deutsch

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Heat Flux Deutsch Video

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