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If IM30 was adsorbing primarily as rings, the adsorption curve would therefore consist of not more than seven discrete steps of at least 0.

However, the adsorption curves we obtained for single particles, where bigger steps do not average out, look relatively smooth and did not show such pronounced steps compare Fig.

IM30 adsorption on lipid-coated single gold nanosensors suggests binding of small IM30 entities.

The percentages were calculated for binding of exclusively small rings of 25 nm in diameter and exclusively big rings of 33 nm in diameter.

The average in the sample lies between those borders. This percentage gives an upper bound to the number of ring binding events within the time step between those two measuring points because successive adsorption of monomers or lower ordered oligomers could add up, especially at higher protein concentrations.

The results of this analysis are shown in Fig. Even if we take into account that binding of smaller oligomers might leave little area for ring binding sketch in Fig.

In this experiment, the bilayer covered gold nanosensors were incubated with increasing IM30 concentrations 0. As expected, the mutant protein, which does not form defined oligomeric ring structures anymore Fig.

Thus, impaired ring formation of the mutant protein does not affect membrane binding of lower ordered IM30 oligomers or monomers.

Dissociation constant for IM30 binding on lipid-coated gold nanosensors. In the present study we analyzed the molecular impact of IM30 binding to pure PG membrane surfaces using two different membrane probes.

Because of its polar, chromophoric head group, Laurdan integrates into the membranes polar head group region 21 , whereas TMA-DPH stays parallel or perpendicular to the surface in the inner, unipolar membrane core region The two dyes, which probe the lipid order in complementary membrane regions, show that IM30 binding to pure PG membrane surfaces in fact increases lipid packing both, in the head group as well as in the acyl-chain region.

This induced increase in lipid packing might be an ancient skill, inherited with the homologous protein PspA 8 , Reducing the proton permeability of the membrane by affecting the membrane fluidity is discussed as one physiological function of PspA in Escherichia coli Because expression of the Synechocystis IM30 protein in an E.

When the cyanobacterial TM or the E. This assumption is further supported by the observation that IM30 is down-regulated in Synechocystis under cold stress conditions 27 , where further decreasing the membrane fluidity would be counterproductive.

However, it is worth mentioning that generally increasing the order of TM lipids can lead to damaged photosynthesis in vivo 28 , 29 , and indeed IM30 appears to have acquired extra functions in cyanobacteria and chloroplasts Recently, we have shown that IM30 rings bind to negatively charged membrane surfaces The observations of this study clearly demonstrate that IM30 rings, as well as low molecular weight structures, bind to the negatively charged PG membrane surfaces, and thus, ring formation is not crucial for membrane binding.

However, although IM30 appears to essentially exclusively exist in an oligomeric form in solution Fig. Thus, binding of the low molecular weight species is thermodynamically more favored than binding of the oligomeric rings.

But why is the membrane binding affinity reduced when IM30 forms rings? In fact, the recently solved crystal structure of a PspA N-terminal protein fragment clearly shows that this region forms a stable coiled-coil Thus, amphipathic helices are involved in formation of quaternary contacts in the IM30 oligomers and are not available for membrane binding.

Because monomeric IM30 has a dramatically increased membrane binding affinity, it appears to be likely that monomerization of the protein results in exposure of amphiphatic helices, which are then free for membrane binding, resulting in an increased membrane binding affinity.

However, proper evaluation of IM30 binding to membranes is complicated because multiple equilibria have to be considered, as summarized in Fig.

Multiple equilibria are involved in the IMmembrane interaction. The equilibrium between higher ordered oligomers and ring structures in solution is represented by the dissociation constant K D ,1.

Oligomerization of monomers in solution and formation of higher ordered oligomers and finally ring structures is represented by the dissociation constant K D ,1.

In fact, formation of IM30 rings from monomers might involve multiples steps and successive oligomerization of monomers or lower ordered oligomers 6.

Although we did not succeed yet in experimentally determining K D ,1 , it is clear that the equilibrium favors protein oligomerization, and only a very minor fraction of IM30 is monomeric in solution compare Fig.

Binding of the lower ordered structures down to monomers to membrane surfaces is described by the dissociation constant K D ,2 , which is in the range of 0.

However, determination of this constant in the NanoSPR experiment is complicated, because the feeder system affects the availability of the monomers.

Thus, an IM30 monomer, organized in a ring, has a drastically decreased affinity to bind to PG membrane surfaces compared with the low molecular weight IM30 species.

Together, the results of this study show that binding of IM30 to negatively charged membrane surfaces affects the lipid order in the lipid head group, as well as in the core region of the membrane.

Organization of IM30 into ring structures reduces the membrane binding affinity, most likely because of shielding of amphiphatic helices involved in formation of the IM30 quaternary structure.

Protein samples were dialyzed after purification against 50 m m sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7. Birmingham, AL. The organic solvent was removed under a gentle nitrogen stream followed by vacuum dehydration.

The dried lipid films were hydrated with HEPES buffer, and unilamellar liposomes were prepared by subjecting the samples to at least five cycles of freeze-thawing.

Steady-state Laurdan fluorescence emission was monitored on a Horiba Scientific FluoroMax-4 spectrometer. Spectra were recorded from to nm after excitation at nm.

For further evaluations, the GP 21 was calculated using Equation 1. The samples were adjusted to different temperatures for 1 min before the measurement.

For this, neighboring data points were fitted with a polynomial function of the third degree including the condition that the fits merge into each other.

For estimating the error, the polynomial degrees were varied from 2 to 5, and the maximum differences of the resulting transition points were presented as errors.

For evaluating the phase transition points in the DMPG-Laurdan curves, the data were fitted via a polynomial function of the ninth degree.

The error was determined via the resulting fit parameters, whereas the function was investigated regarding maximal positive and maximal negative deviation, respectively, and the difference was calculated.

The K D for the IMmembrane interaction was determined in equilibrium measurements by titrating increasing IM30 concentration to liposomes.

The GP values were calculated, and the obtained curve was fitted with Equation 2 , assuming that the available lipid area is outnumbered by the IM30 molecules.

To determine the lipid acyl-chain order within the hydrophobic membrane core region, steady-state fluorescence measurements were performed using TMA-DPH Life Technologies Inc.

The determined melting curves were fitted with a sigmoidal logistic fit from Origin7G OriginLab, Northampton, MA , from which the point of inflection was calculated, which corresponds to the phase transition temperature T m.

To remove unfunctionalized particles and remaining lipids from the solution, PG-AuNRs were separated on a 7K zeba spin desalting column Thermo Scientific.

Functionalization of the nanorods was verified via UV-visible spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis. By changing the particle surrounding, the plasmon resonance wavelength of the nanorods changes slightly, and aggregation of particles caused by instability can be seen in increasing extinction at wavelength between and nm.

UV-visible extinction spectra show a red shift of the plasmon resonance wavelength for PG-AuNRs of 2 nm and do not exhibit particle aggregation supplemental Fig.

Filtration of the particles lead to a reduction of unfunctionalized particles in the sample supplemental Fig. Vitamin B was run as a control supplemental Fig.

To attach the lipid-coated particles on the negatively charged glass surface of the microscope flow cell, the flow cell was incubated first with 0.

Then, PG-AuNRs were injected and incubated with the glass surface until an adequate surface density of attached particles was reached. Unbound particles were washed out.

The optical dark field spectroscopy setup used to record single particle spectra was described in detail previously AuNRs, immobilized on the glass surface of a flow cell, were illuminated by dark field illumination so that only the scattered light of a single nanoparticle entered the spectrometer at a given time.

To obtain statistics of many particles, a piezo scanning stage allowed for the sequential investigation of many particles within the field of view.

The dissociation constant K D was obtained by fitting the data with the Langmuir equation Equation 3. Polarizability can change because of the formation of a dense layer around the particle or even because of binding of a single protein 17 , Both S and d s are functions only of the AuNRs geometry length and width and either measured or estimated theoretically by numerically solving Maxwell's equations using tabulated dielectric constants.

The increased distance to the nanoparticle surface has to be taken into account by subtracting the shift produced by the lipid bilayer from the total shift of the bilayer and the protein.

Using the known particle dimensions, the bilayer thickness and the IM30 ring dimensions reported in Ref.

All authors wrote the paper. We thank R. Genswein, A. Roth, and C. Siebenaller for excellent technical support.

Heidrich is gratefully acknowledged for mathematical help in the Laurdan phase transition curve evaluations.

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest with the contents of this article. S1 and S2.

You'll be in good company. Journal of Lipid Research. Previous Section Next Section. Optical Dark Field Spectroscopy To attach the lipid-coated particles on the negatively charged glass surface of the microscope flow cell, the flow cell was incubated first with 0.

Previous Section. Rast , A. Acta , — Google Scholar. Plant Mol. CrossRef Medline Google Scholar. Kroll , D. Westphal , S. FEBS Lett. Fuhrmann , E.

PCC organizes into diverse higher-ordered ring structures. Cell 20 , — Vothknecht , U. Aseeva , E. Plant Physiol. PCC Hennig , R. Kobayashi , R.

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Openodds expression of the Synechocystis IM30 protein in an E. Submit your work to JBC. Nicht notwendig Nicht notwendig. In addition, we represent our clients before courts of arbitration. Engulfment of an ancient cyanobacterium by a primordial cell has resulted in the development of modern day chloroplasts, the organelles where photosynthesis takes place. The K D for the IMmembrane interaction was determined in equilibrium measurements by titrating Verdienst Gärtner IM30 concentration to liposomes.