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[niˈgeːʁi̯a] (amtlich englisch Federal Republic of. Kontinent, Afrika. Koordinaten, 10 00 N, 8 00 O. Grenzlänge, Küstenlänge, km. Landesfläche insgesamt, km². Höchste Erhebung, Chappal. Das Wirtschaftszentrum von Nigeria befindet sich in Lagos, der Hafenstadt am de / Kontinent / Nigeria Nigeria ist die stärkste Wirtschaftsmacht in Afrika. Menü; Shop; Suche. Internationales · Afrika · Afrika. Kategorie: Staat in Afrika. Nigeria. Länderinfos; Geschichte · Karte.

Nigeria Kontinent

Nigeria Kontinent. Nigeria > Geographie. ShareThis. Kontinent: Afrika. Definition: Dieser Eintrag enthält den Namen der Factbook Referenzkarte, auf der ein. Offizieller Name: Bundesrepublik Nigeria. Hauptstadt: Abuja. Kontinent: Afrika Auch in der nigerianischen Hauptstadt Lagos feiern Kinder und Erwachsene. [niˈgeːʁi̯a] (amtlich englisch Federal Republic of. In the period before election, a report of experts prepared by the National Institute of Policy and Strategic Studies showed that only the and elections Doku Гјber Spielsucht held without systematic rigging. Retrieved 26 April Nigerian citizens have authored many influential works of post-colonial literature Casiplay Casino the English language. Retrieved 24 July By independence inregional differences in modern educational access were Kenoziehung. Puerto Rico. This article is about the country. Daily NewsWatch. Nacktbilder Mann Share. Nach wie vor sind auch die Wasserwege bedeutsam. Nationalhymnen 4. Dauer und Intensität der Regenzeit verringern sich jedoch nach Norden hin. Daneben wurde eine Regulierungsbehörde geschaffen, welche Keno Schein privaten Unternehmungen beaufsichtigen soll. Waldelefanten, Afrikanische Wildhunde, verschiedene Affenarten wie z. Insbesondere seit dem Ende der Militärdiktatur haben sich in Nigeria zahlreiche Bürgerwehren, Schutztruppen, Milizen, Geheimbünde Beste Spielothek in Niederweiler finden Gangs formiert, die sich teils als ethnische, teils als religiöse, teils als politische Bewegungen verstehen. Betrug der Bildungsetat noch 12,2 Prozent des Bruttoinlandsproduktsso sanken die Ausgaben auf 4,6 Prozent. Des Weiteren schädigt die mit der intensiven Ölförderung einhergehende Umweltverschmutzung in Teilen des Landes zusätzlich massiv den traditionell wichtigen primären Wirtschaftssektor.

It is influenced by the Westminster System model [ citation needed ] in the composition and management of the upper and lower houses of the bicameral legislature.

The president is both head of state and head of the federal government ; the leader is elected by popular vote to a maximum of two four-year terms.

The Senate is a seat body with three members from each state and one from the capital region of Abuja; members are elected by popular vote to four-year terms.

The House contains seats, with the number of seats per state determined by population. Ethnocentrism, tribalism, religious persecution, and prebendalism have affected Nigerian politics both prior and subsequent to independence in All major parties have practised vote-rigging and other means of coercion to remain competitive.

In the period before election, a report of experts prepared by the National Institute of Policy and Strategic Studies showed that only the and elections were held without systematic rigging.

Nigeria's three largest ethnic groups the Hausa-Fulani , Yoruba and Igbo have maintained historical preeminence in Nigerian politics; competition amongst these three groups has fuelled animosity.

Because of the above issues, Nigeria's political parties are pan-national and secular in character though this does not preclude the continuing preeminence of the dominant ethnicities.

As in many other African societies, prebendalism and high rates of corruption continue to constitute major challenges to Nigeria.

The country has a judicial branch , with the highest court being the Supreme Court of Nigeria. The Nigerian military are charged with protecting the Federal Republic of Nigeria, promoting Nigeria's global security interests, and supporting peacekeeping efforts, especially in West Africa.

This is in support of the doctrine sometimes called Pax Nigeriana. The Nigerian Military consist of an army , a navy , and an air force.

Various juntas have seized control of the country and ruled it through most of its history. Its last period of military rule ended in following the sudden death of former dictator Sani Abacha in His successor, Abdulsalam Abubakar , handed over power to the democratically-elected government of Olusegun Obasanjo the next year.

As Africa's most populated country, Nigeria has repositioned its military as a peacekeeping force on the continent.

Nigeria has been pervaded by political corruption. Nigeria was ranked out of countries in Transparency International 's Corruption Perceptions Index ; however, it improved to th position in Upon gaining independence in , Nigeria made African unity the centrepiece of its foreign policy and played a leading role in the fight against the apartheid government in South Africa.

The latter nation sponsored and oversaw the construction of Nigeria's parliament buildings. Nigeria's foreign policy was tested in the s after the country emerged united from its own civil war.

It supported movements against white minority governments in the Southern Africa sub-region. Nigeria backed the African National Congress ANC by taking a committed tough line with regard to the South African government and their military actions in southern Africa.

Nigeria was also a founding member of the Organisation for African Unity now the African Union , and has tremendous influence in West Africa and Africa on the whole.

With this Africa-centred stance, Nigeria readily sent troops to the Congo at the behest of the United Nations shortly after independence and has maintained membership since that time.

Nigeria retains membership in the Non-Aligned Movement. In late November , it organised an Africa-South America Summit in Abuja to promote what some attendees termed "South-South" linkages on a variety of fronts.

It was temporarily expelled from the latter in when ruled by the Abacha regime. Nigeria has remained a key player in the international oil industry since the s, and maintains membership in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC , which it joined in July Its status as a major petroleum producer figures prominently in its sometimes volatile international relations with developed countries , notably the United States, and with developing countries.

Millions of Nigerians have emigrated during times of economic hardship, primarily to Europe, North America and Australia. It is estimated that over a million Nigerians have emigrated to the United States and constitute the Nigerian American populace.

Individuals in many such Diasporic communities have joined the "Egbe Omo Yoruba" society, a national association of Yoruba descendants in North America.

Since , Sino-Nigerian trade relations have risen exponentially. There has been an increase in total trade of over 10, million dollars between the two nations from to This is illustrated by the fact that Chinese exports account for around 80 percent of total bilateral trade volumes.

Nigeria may suffer a deterioration of its position in international affairs if the global transition to renewable energy is completed and international demand for its petroleum resources ceases.

Nigeria is divided into thirty-six states and one Federal Capital Territory , which are further sub-divided into Local Government Areas.

Lagos is the largest city in Africa , with a population of over 12 million in its urban area. It is comparable in size to Venezuela , and is about twice the size of the U.

The main rivers are the Niger and the Benue , which converge and empty into the Niger Delta. This is one of the world's largest river deltas, and the location of a large area of Central African mangroves.

Nigeria has a varied landscape. Coastal plains are found in both the southwest and the southeast. North of this is fresh water swamp, containing different vegetation from the salt water swamp, and north of that is rainforest.

Nigeria's most expansive topographical region is that of the valleys of the Niger and Benue river valleys which merge and form a Y-shape. To the southeast of the Benue are hills and mountains, which form the Mambilla Plateau , the highest plateau in Nigeria.

This plateau extends through the border with Cameroon , where the montane land is part of the Bamenda Highlands of Cameroon.

The area near the border with Cameroon close to the coast is rich rainforest and part of the Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests ecoregion , an important centre for biodiversity.

It is habitat for the drill monkey , which is found in the wild only in this area and across the border in Cameroon.

The areas surrounding Calabar , Cross River State, also in this forest, are believed to contain the world's largest diversity of butterflies.

The area of southern Nigeria between the Niger and the Cross Rivers has lost most of its forest because of development and harvesting by increased population, with it being replaced by grassland see Cross-Niger transition forests.

Everything in between the far south and the far north is savannah insignificant tree cover, with grasses and flowers located between trees.

Guinean forest-savanna mosaic is plains of tall grass interrupted by trees. Sudan savannah is similar but with shorter grasses and shorter trees.

Sahel savannah consists of patches of grass and sand, found in the northeast. Nigeria is greatly endowed with numerous tree species of which the majority of them are native while few are exotic.

Report [] shows that high percentage of man-made forests in the country is dominated with exotic species. This culminated from the assumption that exotic trees are fast growing.

However, studies have also investigated the growth of indigenous trees in with that of exotic species. The entry of exotic plants into Nigeria during the post-independence era was encouraged by increasing economic activity, commencement of commercial oil explorations, introduction through ships, and introduction of ornamental plants by commercial floriculturists.

These are in addition to several ex-situ conservation sites such as arboreta, botanical gardens, zoological gardens, and gene banks managed by several tertiary and research institutions [].

In the semi-arid and dry sub-humid savanna's of West Africa, including Nigeria, numerous species of herbaceous dicots especially from the genera Crotalaria , Alysicarpus , Cassia and Ipomea are known to be widely used in livestock production.

Quite often they are plucked or cut, and fed either as fresh or conserved fodders. The utilization of these and many other herbs growing naturally within the farm environment is opportunistic.

Many other species native to Nigeria, including Soybean and its varieties, serve as an important source of oil and protein in this region.

Some of these vegetations include, Euphorbiaceae , that serve purposed to aid malaria, gastrointestinal disorders and many other infections.

Different stress factors such as droughts, low soil nutrients and susceptibility to pests has contributed to Maize plantations being an integral part of agriculture in this region.

As industrialization has increased, it has also put species of trees in the forest at risk to air pollution and studies have shown that in certain part of Nigeria, trees have shown tolerance and grow in areas that have a significant amount air pollution [].

Nigeria's Delta region, home of the large oil industry , experiences serious oil spills and other environmental problems, which has caused conflict.

Waste management including sewage treatment , the linked processes of deforestation and soil degradation , and climate change or global warming are the major environmental problems in Nigeria.

Waste management presents problems in a mega city like Lagos and other major Nigerian cities which are linked with economic development , population growth and the inability of municipal councils to manage the resulting rise in industrial and domestic waste.

This huge waste management problem is also attributable to unsustainable environmental management lifestyles of Kubwa Community in the Federal Capital Territory , where there are habits of indiscriminate disposal of waste, dumping of waste along or into the canals , sewerage systems that are channels for water flows, and the like.

Haphazard industrial planning, increased urbanisation , poverty and lack of competence of the municipal government are seen as the major reasons for high levels of waste pollution in major cities of the country.

Some of the 'solutions' have been disastrous to the environment, resulting in untreated waste being dumped in places where it can pollute waterways and groundwater.

Between and , Nigeria lost an average of , hectares of forest every year equal to an average annual deforestation rate of 2.

Between and , in total Nigeria lost While estimates vary, it is thought that upwards of children died of acute lead poisoning , making this perhaps the largest lead poisoning fatality epidemic ever encountered.

Nigeria is classified as a mixed economy emerging market. It has reached lower middle income status according to the World Bank , [] with its abundant supply of natural resources, well-developed financial, legal, communications, transport sectors and stock exchange the Nigerian Stock Exchange , which is the second largest in Africa.

It has the seventh-largest trade surplus with the U. Nigeria is the 50th-largest export market for U. The United States is the country's largest foreign investor.

In during its first recession in 25 years, the economy contracted by 1. By , the economy began to recover slightly with the nation's real GDP growing by 2.

In , the economy began to recover slightly with the nation's real GDP growing by 2. Economic development has been hindered by years of military rule , corruption, and mismanagement.

The restoration of democracy and subsequent economic reforms have successfully put Nigeria back on track towards achieving its full economic potential.

As of [update] it is the largest economy in Africa, having overtaken South Africa. Next to petrodollars, the second biggest source of foreign exchange earnings for Nigeria are remittances sent home by Nigerians living abroad.

During the oil boom of the s, Nigeria accumulated a significant foreign debt to finance major infrastructural investments. With the fall of oil prices during the s oil glut Nigeria struggled to keep up with its loan payments and eventually defaulted on its principal debt repayments, limiting repayment to the interest portion of the loans.

Arrears and penalty interest accumulated on the unpaid principal, which increased the size of the debt. Nigeria is trying to reach the first of the Sustainable Development Goals , which is to end poverty in all its forms by Major crops include beans , sesame , cashew nuts , cassava , cocoa beans , groundnuts , gum arabic , kolanut, maize corn , melon , millet , palm kernels , palm oil , plantains , rice , rubber , sorghum , soybeans and yams.

Prior to the Nigerian civil war , Nigeria was self-sufficient in food. Nigeria is the 12th largest producer of petroleum in the world and the 8th largest exporter, and has the 10th largest proven reserves.

The country joined OPEC in The Niger Delta Nembe Creek Oil field was discovered in and produces from middle Miocene deltaic sandstone - shale in an anticline structural trap at a depth of 2 to 4 kilometres 1.

While many international oil companies have operated there for decades, by most were making moves to divest their interests, citing a range of issues including oil theft.

Nigeria has a total of oil fields and 1, wells in operation according to the Department of Petroleum Resources.

Most of Nigeria's oil fields are small and scattered, and as of , these small fields accounted for This contrasts with the sixteen largest fields which produced In addition to its petroleum resources, Nigeria also has a wide array of underexploited mineral resources which include natural gas, coal, bauxite , tantalite , gold, tin , iron ore, limestone , niobium , lead and zinc.

Nigeria has a highly developed financial services sector, with a mix of local and international banks, asset management companies, brokerage houses, insurance companies and brokers, private equity funds and investment banks.

Tourism in Nigeria centers largely on events, due to the country's ample amount of ethnic groups, but also includes rain forests , savannah , waterfalls , and other natural attractions.

Abuja is home to several parks and green areas. The largest, Millennium Park , was designed by architect Manfredi Nicoletti and officially opened in December Lagos , subsequent to the re-modernization project achieved by the previous administration of Governor Raji Babatunde Fashola, is gradually becoming a major tourist destination, being one of the largest cities in Africa and in the world.

Lagos is currently taking steps to become a global city. The Eyo carnival a yearly festival originated from Iperu Remo , Ogun State , which took place on 25 April, was a step toward world city status.

Currently, Lagos is primarily known as a business-oriented and a fast-paced community. Established in , the event takes place over a 3—5 day period at selected high quality outdoor venues.

The music is as varied as the audience itself and features a diverse mix of musical genres from rhythm and blues to soul, Afrobeat , hip hop, bebop, and traditional jazz.

The festivals provide entertainment of dance and song to add excitement to travelers during a stay in Lagos. Lagos also has a number of private beach resorts including Inagbe Grand Beach Resort and several others in the outskirts.

Lagos has a variety of hotels ranging from three star to five star hotels, with a mixture of local hotels such as Eko Hotels and Suites , Federal Palace Hotel and franchises of multinational chains such as Intercontinental Hotel, Sheraton and Four Points by Hilton.

Nigeria has a manufacturing industry that includes leather and textiles centred in Kano, Abeokuta, Onitsha, and Lagos , Nigeria currently has an indigenous auto manufacturing company; Innoson Vehicle Manufacturing [] located in Nnewi.

It produces Buses and SUVs. In this regard, some foreign vehicle manufacturing companies like Nissan have made known their plans to have manufacturing plants in Nigeria.

Nigeria in recent years has been embracing industrialisation. It currently has an indigenous vehicle manufacturing company, Innoson Motors , which manufactures saloon cars, rapid transit buses , ambulances, firefighting trucks and SUVs.

Nigeria's primary energy consumption was about Mtoe in From independence, Nigeria has tried to develop a domestic nuclear industry for energy.

Since , Nigeria has a Chinese-origin research reactor at Ahmadu Bello University , and has sought the support of the International Atomic Energy Agency to develop plans for up to 4, MWe of nuclear capacity by according to the National Program for the Deployment of Nuclear Power for Generation of Electricity.

Nigeria hoped to begin construction in and start nuclear power production in On 27 July Nigeria's President Umaru Yar'Adua urged the country to embrace nuclear power in order to meet its growing energy needs.

Construction has not begun but plans have not been canceled by In April , Nigeria began talks with Russia's state-owned Rosatom to collaborate on the design, construction and operation of four nuclear power plants by , the first of which will be in operation by In June , Nigeria selected two sites for the planned construction of the nuclear plants.

Neither the Nigerian government nor Rosatom would disclose the specific locations of the sites, but it is believed that the nuclear plants will be sited in Akwa Ibom State, in South-South Nigeria, and Kogi State, in the central northern part of the country.

Both sites are planned to house two plants each. In agreements were signed for the construction of the Itu nuclear power plant. Nigeria suffers from lack of adequate transportation infrastructure.

As of , it's , kilometers of road networks are the main means of transportation. Of which 60, kilometers including 1,km of expressways are paved roads and as of west.

The railways have undergone a massive revamping with projects such as the Lagos-Kano Standard Gauge Railway being completed connecting northern cities of Kano, Kaduna, Abuja, Ibadan and Lagos.

As with other transportation facilities, the airports suffer from a poor reputation for safety and operational efficiency. The government has recently begun expanding this infrastructure to space based communications.

The Nigerian government has commissioned the overseas production and launch of four satellites. NigComSat-1 , was the first Nigerian satellite built in , was Nigeria's third satellite and Africa's first communication satellite.

On 11 November , NigComSat-1 failed in orbit after running out of power because of an anomaly in its solar array. It was based on the Chinese DFH-4 satellite bus , and carries a variety of transponders : four C-band ; fourteen Ku-band ; eight Ka-band ; and two L-band.

It was designed to provide coverage to many parts of Africa, and the Ka-band transponders would also cover Italy. The satellite was launched from Russia on 27 September Nigeriasat-1 was part of the worldwide Disaster Monitoring Constellation System.

NigeriaSat-2, Nigeria's second satellite, was built as a high-resolution earth satellite by Surrey Space Technology Limited, a United Kingdom -based satellite technology company.

It has 2. This satellite was launched into orbit from a military base in China. According to Nigerian Communications Satellite Limited, it was put into "emergency mode operation in order to effect mitigation and repairs".

It was equipped with 0. The satellite transmitted songs and poems as an outreach project to generate Nigerian interest in science.

The signal could be received by amateur radio operators. The satellite constellation also conducted measurements of the atmospheric density kilometres mi above the Earth.

Around The median age in was The United Nations estimates that the population in was at ,, [] [] , distributed as National census results in the past few decades have been disputed.

The results of the most recent census were released in December and gave a population of ,, The only breakdown available was by gender: males numbered 71,,, females numbered 68,, According to the United Nations, Nigeria has been undergoing explosive population growth and has one of the highest growth and fertility rates in the world.

By their projections, Nigeria is one of eight countries expected to account collectively for half of the world's total population increase in — One in six Africans is Nigerian as of The birth rate is Nigeria's largest city is Lagos.

Lagos has grown from about , in [] to an estimated See: List of ethnic groups in Nigeria. Nigeria has more than ethnic groups, with varying languages and customs, creating a country of rich ethnic diversity.

The middle belt of Nigeria is known for its diversity of ethnic groups, including the Pyem, Goemai, and Kofyar. The official population count of each of Nigeria's ethnicities has always remained controversial and disputed as members of different ethnic groups believe the census is rigged to give a particular group usually believed to be northern groups numerical superiority.

There are small minorities of British, American, Indian , Chinese est. Immigrants also include those from other West African or East African nations.

These minorities mostly reside in major cities such as Lagos and Abuja , or in the Niger Delta as employees for the major oil companies.

A number of Cubans settled in Nigeria as political refugees following the Cuban Revolution. In the middle of the 19th century, a number of ex-slaves of Afro-Cuban and Afro-Brazilian descent [] and emigrants from Sierra Leone established communities in Lagos and other regions of Nigeria.

Many ex-slaves came to Nigeria following the emancipation of slaves in the Americas. Many of the immigrants, sometimes called Saro immigrants from Sierra Leone and Amaro ex-slaves from Brazil [] later became prominent merchants and missionaries in these cities.

In some areas of Nigeria, ethnic groups speak more than one language. The official language of Nigeria, English, was chosen to facilitate the cultural and linguistic unity of the country, owing to the influence of British colonisation which ended in Many French speakers from surrounding countries have influenced the English spoken in the border regions of Nigeria and some Nigerian citizens have become fluent enough in French to work in the surrounding countries.

The French spoken in Nigeria may be mixed with some native languages but is mostly spoken like the French spoken in Benin. French may also be mixed with English as it is in Cameroon.

The major languages spoken in Nigeria represent three major families of languages of Africa : the majority are Niger-Congo languages, such as Igbo , Yoruba , Ijaw , Fulfulde , Ogoni , and Edo.

Kanuri , spoken in the northeast, primarily in Borno and Yobe State , is part of the Nilo-Saharan family, and Hausa is an Afroasiatic language.

Even though most ethnic groups prefer to communicate in their own languages, English as the official language is widely used for education, business transactions and for official purposes.

English as a first language is used by only a small minority of the country's urban elite, and it is not spoken at all in some rural areas. Hausa is the most widely spoken of the three main languages spoken in Nigeria itself.

With the majority of Nigeria's populace in the rural areas, the major languages of communication in the country remain indigenous languages.

Some of the largest of these, notably Yoruba and Igbo, have derived standardised languages from a number of different dialects and are widely spoken by those ethnic groups.

Nigerian Pidgin English , often known simply as " Pidgin " or "Broken" Broken English , is also a popular lingua franca , though with varying regional influences on dialect and slang.

Religion in Nigeria []. Nigeria is a religiously diverse society, with Islam and Christianity being the most widely professed religions.

Nigerians are nearly equally divided into Muslims and Christians , with a tiny minority of adherents of Traditional African religions and other religions.

It also has a number of adherents in the South Western, Yoruba part of the country. Nigeria has the largest Muslim population in sub-Saharan Africa.

Protestant and locally cultivated Christianity are also widely practiced in Western areas, while Roman Catholicism is a more prominent Christian feature of South Eastern Nigeria.

A large number of Sunni Muslims are members of Sufi brotherhoods. A significant Shia minority exists see Shia in Nigeria. Some northern states have incorporated Sharia law into their previously secular legal systems, which has brought about some controversy.

The census of Association of Religion Data Archives has also reported that Since the s, there has been significant growth in many other churches, independently started in Africa by Africans, particularly the evangelical Protestant ones.

The Yoruba area contains a large Anglican population, while Igboland is a mix of Roman Catholics and Protestants, and the Edo area is composed predominantly of members of the Pentecostal Assemblies of God, which was introduced into Nigeria by Augustus Ehurie Wogu and his associates at Old Umuahia.

Further, Nigeria has become an African hub for the Grail Movement and the Hare Krishnas , [] and the largest temple of the Eckankar religion is in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, with a total capacity of 10, Health care delivery in Nigeria is a concurrent responsibility of the three tiers of government in the country, and the private sector.

A comprehensive approach strategy was extended to all areas of health care, with subsequent improvement in the health care indicators and improvement in health care efficiency and cost.

As of [update] , the HIV prevalence rate among adults ages 15—49 was just 3. However, a major breakthrough came in December , when it was reported that Nigeria had recorded zero polio cases in six months.

Nigeria became the second African country to have successfully carried out this surgery. The Nigerian health care system is continuously faced with a shortage of doctors known as ' brain drain ', because of emigration by skilled Nigerian doctors to North America and Europe.

In , an estimated 21, Nigerian doctors were practising in the United States alone, which is about the same as the number of doctors working in the Nigerian public service.

Retaining these expensively trained professionals has been identified as one of the goals of the government.

Education in Nigeria is overseen by the Ministry of Education. Local authorities take responsibility for implementing policy for state-controlled public education and state schools at a regional level.

The education system is divided into Kindergarten , primary education , secondary education and tertiary education. After the s oil boom, tertiary education was improved so it would reach every subregion of Nigeria.

Nigeria provides free, government-supported education, but attendance is not compulsory at any level, and certain groups, such as nomads and the handicapped, are under-served.

The education system consists of six years of primary school, three years of junior secondary school, three years of senior secondary school, and four, five or six years of university education leading to a bachelor's degree.

The country has a total of universities registered by NUC among which federal and state government own 40 and 39 respectively while 50 universities are privately owned.

In order to increase the number of universities in Nigeria from to the Federal Government gave nine new private universities their licences in May Nigeria is home to a substantial network of organised crime , active especially in drug trafficking.

Nigerian criminal groups are heavily involved in drug trafficking, shipping heroin from Asian countries to Europe and America; and cocaine from South America to Europe and South Africa.

As confraternities have extensive connections with political and military figures, they offer excellent alumni networking opportunities.

There is some major piracy in Nigeria , with attacks directed at all types of vessels. Consistent with the rise of Nigeria as an increasingly dangerous hot spot, 28 of the 30 seafarers kidnapped globally between January and June were in Nigeria.

Gang violence in Lagos resulted in civilians and 84 policemen killed in the period of August to May Internationally, Nigeria is infamous for a form of bank fraud dubbed , a type of advance fee fraud named after Section of the Nigerian Penal Code along with the " Nigerian scam ", a form of confidence trick practised by individuals and criminal syndicates.

The victim is talked into exchanging bank account information on the premise that the money will be transferred to them and they will get to keep a cut.

Nigeria is described as the "poverty capital of the world", [] over 89 million of its population live in extreme poverty. Because of its multitude of diverse, sometimes competing ethno-linguistic groups, Nigeria prior to independence was faced with sectarian tensions and violence, particularly in the oil-producing Niger Delta region, where both state and civilian forces employ varying methods of coercion in attempts to gain control over regional petroleum resources.

Some of the ethnic groups like the Ogoni , have experienced severe environmental degradation due to petroleum extraction. Since the end of the civil war in , some ethnic violence has persisted.

There has subsequently been a period of relative harmony [ when? The Miss World pageant was moved from Abuja to London in the wake of violent protests by Muslims in the Northern part of the country that left at least a hundred dead and more than injured.

Muslim rioters in Kaduna killed an estimated men, women, and children with a further injured taken to hospital.

Since , the country has seen sectarian violence by Boko Haram , a movement that seeks to abolish the secular system of government and establish Sharia law in the country.

Between and , Boko Haram has been responsible for more than 37, deaths in the region. In April , more than people in ten villages in predominantly Christian areas in Agatu were murdered by Fulani herdsmen.

A visiting Nigerian Senator reported that all the primary and post-primary schools, health centres, worship centres as well as the police station in the area were destroyed.

Forced marriages are common. Child marriage remains common in Northern Nigeria. There is polygamy in Nigeria. Women have less land rights. In , there was a federal ban.

In Nigeria, at least half a million suffer from vaginal fistula , largely as a result of lack of medical care.

Women also face a large amount of inequality Politically in Nigeria, being subjugated to a bias which is sexist and reinforced by socio-cultural, economic and oppressive ways.

Women's representation in government since Independence from Britain is also very poor. Women have been reduced to sideline roles in appointive posts throughout all levels in government, and still make an up a tiny minority of elected officials.

Nigeria's human rights record remains poor. Under the Shari'a penal code that applies to Muslims in twelve northern states, offences such as alcohol consumption, homosexuality , [] infidelity and theft carry harsh sentences, including amputation, lashing, stoning and long prison terms.

Under a law signed in early , [] same-sex couples who marry face up to 14 years each in prison. Witnesses or anyone who helps gay couples marry will be sentenced to 10 years behind bars.

The bill also punishes the "public show of same-sex amorous relationships directly or indirectly" with ten years in prison.

Another portion of the bill mandates 10 years in prison for those found guilty of organising, operating or supporting gay clubs, organizations and meetings.

In the Nigerian state of Akwa Ibom , about 15, children were branded as witches ; most of them ended up abandoned and abused on the streets.

He has been detained incommunicado and accused of blasphemy, after he wrote a post on Facebook expressing his beliefs.

He has been denied access to his family and his lawyer and also been subjected to ill-treatment in police custody. Muhammad al-Amin al-Kanemi , the Shehu of Borno.

Idia , the Iyoba of Benin. Jaja , the Amanyanaboh of Opobo. Nigerian citizens have authored many influential works of post-colonial literature in the English language.

Nigeria has had a huge role in the development of various genres of African music , including West African highlife , Afrobeat , Afrobeats , and palm-wine music , which fuses native rhythms with techniques that have been linked to the Congo , Brazil , Cuba , Jamaica and worldwide.

Many late 20th-century musicians such as Fela Kuti have famously fused cultural elements of various indigenous music with American jazz and soul to form Afrobeat which has in turn influenced hip hop music.

Fuji music , a Yoruba percussion style, was created and popularised by Mr. Fuji, Alhaji Sikiru Ayinde Barrister. Afan Music was invented and popularised by the Ewu -born poet and musician Umuobuarie Igberaese.

There is a budding hip-hop movement in Nigeria. Kennis Music , the self-proclaimed number-one record label in Africa, and one of Nigeria's biggest record labels, has a roster almost entirely dominated by hip-hop artists.

In November , Nigeria's music scene and that of Africa received international attention when MTV hosted the continent's first African music awards show in Abuja.

The Nigerian film industry is known as Nollywood a blend of Nigeria and Hollywood [] and is now the 2nd-largest producer of movies in the world after India's Bollywood.

Nigerian film studios are based in Lagos , Kano and Enugu , forming a major portion of the local economy of these cities. Nigerian cinema is Africa's largest movie industry in terms of both value and the number of movies produced per year.

Although Nigerian films have been produced since the s, the country's film industry has been aided by the rise of affordable digital filming and editing technologies.

The thriller film The Figurine is generally considered the game changer, which heightened the media attention towards New Nigerian Cinema revolution.

The film was a critical and commercial success in Nigeria, and it was also screened in international film festivals. It contributed about 1.

Joshua 's Emmanuel TV , originating from Nigeria, is one of the most viewed television stations across Africa.

There are many festivals in Nigeria , some of which date to the period before the arrival of the major religions in this ethnically and culturally diverse society.

The main Muslim and Christian festivals are often celebrated in ways that are unique to Nigeria or unique to the people of a locality.

Nigerian cuisine, like West African cuisine in general, is known for its richness and variety. Many different spices, herbs and flavourings are used in conjunction with palm oil or groundnut oil to create deeply flavoured sauces and soups often made very hot with chili peppers.

Nigerian feasts are colourful and lavish, while aromatic market and roadside snacks cooked on barbecues or fried in oil are plentiful and varied.

Football is largely considered Nigeria's national sport and the country has its own Premier League of football.

Nigeria's national football team , known as the "Super Eagles", has made the World Cup on Six occasions , , , , , and most recently in They won the gold medal for football in the Summer Olympics in which they beat Argentina becoming the first African football team to win gold in Olympic football.

Nigeria is also involved in other sports such as basketball, cricket and track and field. Nigeria's national basketball team made the headlines internationally when it qualified for the Summer Olympics as it beat heavily favoured world elite teams such as Greece and Lithuania.

In the early s, Scrabble was made an official sport in Nigeria. By the end of , there were around 4, players in more than clubs in the country.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Nigeria disambiguation.

Not to be confused with the neighbouring country Niger. Federal republic in West Africa. Main articles: History of Nigeria and Timeline of Nigerian history.

Further information: History of Nigeria before Further information: History of Nigeria — Main article: First Nigerian Republic.

Main article: Nigerian Civil War. Main article: Second Nigerian Republic. Main article: Third Nigerian Republic. Main article: Fourth Nigerian Republic.

Main article: Politics of Nigeria. Main article: Law of Nigeria. Main article: Nigerian Armed Forces. Main article: Corruption in Nigeria.

Main article: Foreign relations of Nigeria. Main article: Administrative divisions of Nigeria. Main articles: Geography of Nigeria and Geology of Nigeria.

Main article: Economy of Nigeria. Further information: Agriculture in Nigeria. Further information: Petroleum industry in Nigeria , List of countries by oil exports , and Mining industry of Nigeria.

Main article: Energy in Nigeria. Main article: Transportation in Nigeria. Main article: Demographics of Nigeria. Main article: Languages of Nigeria.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Religion in Nigeria. Islam Traditional African religions 7.

Others 0. Further information: Health in Nigeria. Main article: Education in Nigeria. Main article: Crime in Nigeria. Main article: Poverty in Nigeria.

Main article: Women in Nigeria. Main article: Culture of Nigeria. Main article: Nigerian chieftaincy system. Main article: Nigerian literature.

Main article: Cuisine of Nigeria. Main article: Sports in Nigeria. Nigeria portal. Retrieved 12 September Retrieved Total population: International Monetary Fund.

Retrieved 20 October National Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 8 June United Nations Development Programme.

Retrieved 10 December Retrieved 25 May Retrieved 9 May Retrieved 4 July Archived from the original on 15 September Pew Research Center.

Nigeria Law. Retrieved 17 July United States Embassy in Nigeria. Retrieved 23 September World Bank Group. Retrieved 11 January Bloomberg LP.

Skyhorse Publishing, Inc. Retrieved 28 December Retrieved 5 April Retrieved 20 April Retrieved 26 April Retrieved 4 June The Round Table.

World Bank. Retrieved 28 November Archived from the original on 3 December West Africa Gateway. Retrieved 25 August Cooper, Agata Antkiewicz and Timothy M.

Cooper London: Macmillan, Retrieved 27 April The Street Journal. Retrieved 28 July Nok: African Sculpture in Archaeological Context: p.

Mamiya Cengage Learning. Retrieved 16 July In Breunig, P ed. Nok: African Sculpture in Archaeological Context. University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

Retrieved 12 December Africa and the Americas: culture, politics, and history: a multidisciplinary encyclopedia, Volume 2. Africa from the seventh to the eleventh Century.

James Currey Publishers. Elochukwu Worship as Body Language. Liturgical Press. A History of Nigeria. Cambridge University Press.

Hegemony and culture: politics and religious change among the Yoruba. University of Chicago Press. Peoples of Africa, Volume 1. Marshall Cavendish. Retrieved 29 March Historical Dictionary of Nigeria.

One of the prominent tribes of the Yoruba established a kingdom in the 12th century. In the 18th century, Usman dan Fodio, a Muslim ruler, led a war in the region against the Yoruba Kingdoms and established the Fulani Kingdom which was a centralized government.

In the 16th century, the Portuguese explorers did some commercial activities with the Nigerians in Calabar Port. Later, slave trade was introduced with the port providing a large number of slaves who were exported to various destinations, especially Europe.

Most of the ports carried out successful slave trade which came to an end in The Christian missionaries began penetrating the inland bringing in religion, education and western civilization.

The British were able to colonize Nigeria until when the country got her independence. After independence, the government was formed by a coalition of various political parties.

The first general was Nnamdi Azikiwe. The country adopted a federal presidential system largely borrowed from the US. The president is the head of state.

Currently, General Muhammadu Buhari is the president. There are 36 states. Between and there was fighting shortly after the coup which led to political instability.

Various countries participated in restoring peace to the country, among them France, Britain, the Soviet Union, and Egypt. The Civil War came to an end in January Democracy resumed in upon the election of Olusegun Obasanjo as president.

The Nigerian economy had a major boost upon the discovery of oil in the s, making Nigeria the 12th largest producer of oil in the world.

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